Earthquakes of these types are especially frequent in the coastal regions of northeastern Japan. The movements of these plates can build mountains or cause volcanoes to erupt. The environmental hazards you face depend on where you live. Kobe, Japan is near 3 tectonic plates (great big slabs of the earths crust that move around due to the convection currents massive circuits of lava under the surface of the earth.) d) What other primary effects resulted from the earthquake? © 1996 - 2020 National Geographic Society. any area on Earth with one or more common characteristics. The earthquake caused 5100 deaths, mainly in Kobe. According to official statistics, 5,472 people were killed, and over 400,000 were injured. The Hanshin region (the name is derived from the characters used to write Ōsaka and Kōbe) is Japan’s second largest urban area, with more than 11 million inhabitants; with the earthquake’s epicentre located as close as it was to such a densely populated area, the effects were overwhelming. the sudden shaking of Earth's crust caused by the release of energy along fault lines or from volcanic activity. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. c) What were the effects caused by the earthquake? The Great Hanshin Earthquake Disaster of 1995 was one of the worst in Japan’s history, killing 6,433 people and causing more than $100 billion in damages. ...The Kobe earthquake (also known as the Great Hanshin earthquake, Hanshin meaning Osaka-Kobe) was a tragic disaster on several levels.The earthquake lasted just twenty seconds but caused so much damage, trauma and of course, loss. Like all earthquakes, the Kobe earthquake was caused by a sudden movement of the tectonic plates that make up the crust of the earth. Date of the Earthquake. The Great Kanto earthquake claimed 140,000 lives. Regions are the basic units of geography. National Geographic Headquarters The Kobe Earthquake, with a magnitude of 7.2 on the Richter scale, that struck at 5:46 in the morning of January 17, 1995, caused considerable and various types of damage in the Hanshin area around the cities of Kobe and Osaka in Japan. Physical Causes The earthquake of Kobe at 546am on the 17th January 1995 was caused by the simple matter of the Philippine Plate being forced under the thicker and lighter continental plate the Eurasian. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. We humans live on a very thin layer of mostly rock which all floats on a sea of liquid called magma. On the other hand, the Kobe region was thought to be fairly safe in terms of seismic activity. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Taking into consideration the entire Kobe and Aum Tokyo scenarios together with the earlier, possibly Aum-related, fireball-explosion-earthquake events of 28 May 1993 at Banjawarn, Western Australia, one is left with a very strong impression of a serious "EM fire" underlying the visible "dark plume of smoke" that rose over Kobe. Magnitude of the Kobe Earthquake. massive slab of solid rock made up of Earth's lithosphere (crust and upper mantle). Privacy Notice |  Port and waterfront facilities in Kobe, Japan, suffered extensive damage due to liquefaction during the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. She or he will best know the preferred format. Everything We Know About What Caused Kobe Bryant’s Helicopter to Crash News On 6 From dreams to tragedy. The Earth’s crust is broken up into a series of massive sections called plates. All rights reserved. Kobe earthquake On January 17th, 1995, Japan was woken at 5:46am by its largest ever recorded earthquake. The clash of these plates can also cause violent earthquakes, where Earth’s surface shakes. Mechanism of the earthquake Most of the largest earthquakes in Japan are caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate or Pacific Plate, with mechanisms that involve either energy released within the subducting plate or the accumulation and sudden release of stress in the overlying plate. This is because the physical conditions in each place are different. What: To investigate the Kobe earthquake, finding out what happened, where, what damage was caused and why the damage was so severe. Kobe Earthquake Causes Of course, the Kobe Earthquake cause is natural and out of human hands. Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. Something Kobe was unprepared! fracture in Earth's crust where tectonic movement is left (sinistral) or right (dextral), but rarely vertical. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Why: To help you achieve your target level for your first Geography assessment! Measured at a magnitude of 7.6 (slightly less than that of the 1906 San Francisco quake), the earthquake caused major destruction in northern Pakistan, northern India, and Afghanistan, an area that lies on an active fault caused by the northward tectonic drift of the Indian subcontinent. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. The Great Hanshin Earthquake. Eurasian. Omissions? The Kobe Earthquake of January 17, 1995 might not be a characteristic event on the Rokko fault system but an episodic event on subsidiary faults. Sustainability Policy |  Its epicentre was the northern part of Awaji Island in the Inland Sea, 12.5 miles (20 km) off the coast of the port city of Kōbe; the quake’s focus was about 10 miles (16 km) below the earth’s surface. Learn more about environmental hazards with this curated resource collection. The January 17, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake of magnitude 7.2 in JMA scale (Mw = 6.9), which struck Kobe, Japan and its surrounding area was the most severe earthquake to affect that region this century. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students. 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